This article describes in detail all the stages according to which the construction of a bath in the country is carried out: video, step-by-step instructions, requirements for structures and materials. In the text, you can find the most common and popular projects, photos of the best buildings, practical advice on creating a bathhouse in a summer cottage with your own hands: starting with the choice of structure, foundation and roof, ending with finishing the floors and choosing furniture.
- 1 Construction of a practical and beautiful bathhouse in the country: photos inside and outside, interesting projects
- 2 Planning and construction of a turnkey bath, projects and prices for materials
- 2.1 Standards for the construction of a summer cottage on the site
- 2.2 Popular types of projects for a small bath for a summer residence
- 2.3 The choice of practical material for building a bath
- 2.4 Materials for the construction of a frame bath in the country
- 2.5 Materials for the construction of a prefabricated bathhouse for a summer residence and classification by heat source
- 2.6 Materials for the construction of a bathhouse in the country with a stationary structure
- 2.7 Insulation and vapor barrier of a small bath for a summer residence: recommended materials
- 2.8 Materials for the ceiling and interior cladding for a small bathhouse for a summer residence
- 2.9 How much does it cost to build a turnkey bathhouse in a dacha: prices of finished projects and materials
- 3 How to make a bath in the country yourself: tips for project development
- 4 How to build a bathhouse in the country with your own hands: technology
- 4.1 Do-it-yourself markup for a small bath in the country, taking into account the features of the foundation
- 4.2 Preparing a strip foundation for a mini-bath for a summer residence with your own hands
- 4.3 Making formwork for the construction of a bath in the country with your own hands
- 4.4 Pouring the foundation for the construction of a bath in the country
- 4.5 How to build a bathhouse in the country with your own hands: laying walls
- 4.6 Construction of a frame for a small bath in the country
- 4.7 How to properly build a roof and install floors for a bath in the country
- 4.8 Organization of ventilation according to general projects of a bath in the country
- 4.9 Plating according to the project of a bath for a summer residence
- 5 Construction of a bath in the country: video instruction
Construction of a practical and beautiful bathhouse in the country: photos inside and outside, interesting projects
In order to create comfortable conditions for living or resting, the owners of summer cottages ennoble the territory.To do this, flower beds or lawns are broken in the yard, recreation areas are set up and small buildings are erected, for example, sheds, gazebos, summer kitchens, etc. An integral part of comfort on dacha is the bathhouse.
The following factors affect the comfort of use:
- material of manufacture;
- internal layout;
- type of steam supply;
- temperature regime;
- air humidity, etc.
Much of this depends on the specifics of the project and compliance with all technology requirements.
Classification of the main types of baths in the country: photos of common projects
The Russian steam room is the most common type of self-made baths in the country, photos of such structures in large numbers can be found on the network. Such a structure is a room equipped with a stove. In the process of burning fuel, it builds up heat. The Russian steam room is characterized by high air humidity, therefore, to increase the amount of water vapor, it is enough to pour cold water on hot stones.
Japanese furo baths are made in the form of a large wooden tub. It is filled with hot water and installed in a room with humid air, the temperature of which reaches 30 ° C or more. Most often, structures of such baths are being built in the country with a shower, because it is advisable to wash before visiting.
Finnish baths called saunas are very popular. The designs of these structures are no different from Russian steam rooms, the difference lies in the microclimate. In Finnish saunas, the air is kept dry. Under such conditions, the human body is able to withstand a higher temperature regime. Some steam lovers can tolerate heating in excess of 100 ° C. But this is only possible in Finnish saunas.
Summer residents do not refuse to build a Turkish bath hamam. These designs operate at lower temperatures. It is recommended to keep the air in the room moist and not to raise the temperature above 50-60 ° C. In such conditions, a person can spend several hours in the steam room without fear of harm to their health.
Important!The broom can only be used in the steam room at low temperatures. Otherwise, severe burns on the skin may be left from its use.
There are also more exotic options, such as a Mexican or Roman steam room. But for them construction a large room is required.
Compact projects: photo of baths in the country house 3x4 meters
If the site is small, it is better to limit yourself to the construction of a Turkish bath or a Russian steam room. Only these designs are compact.
The most rational solution would be to arrange a compact bath inside the house. Such structures are part of a residential building project. It is assumed that one of the premises of the house on the ground floor will be reserved for a shower and a steam room. As a result, the owner can significantly save on the construction of a detached building. In addition, only the steam room will need thermal insulation.
A small bath can also be made as an extension to the house. This option is used in cases where the design of the building did not provide for the arrangement of a steam room.It is recommended to attach the sauna to the back wall of the house. Thus, the structure will be hidden from outsiders and protected from drafts and wind.
Serious investments may require the construction of a capital small bath in the country with your own hands, photos of such structures look quite impressive. There are projects that have a terrace where you can relax on summer evenings. Capital structures can be used without restrictions in terms of humidity and temperature, since they are installed away from home and cannot harm the microclimate of premises in a residential building, unlike the previous two options.
Alternative projects of small baths for summer cottages
A compact substitute for a stationary bath will be a mobile sauna in the form of a trailer. This design does not cause transportation problems and is installed directly on the ground. In some cases, it may be necessary to build a low-power foundation. Trailers are capable of providing the necessary comfort, but such structures are classified as economy.
Temporary structures can be considered budgetary solutions. The structures of such baths are made in the form of awnings made of dense tent material. Their installation is carried out on a paved area or other flat surface. After using the steam room, the tent bath is dismantled.
Budget projects of barrel baths for summer cottages look unusual. The products have a cylindrical structure made of wood and mounted on two supports. The internal layout involves 1-2 partitions that divide the space into 2-3 sections. The compartment in the back is reserved for the organization of the steam room.
The price of such a bathhouse for a turnkey dacha is about 35-220 thousand rubles. If you start building yourself, this figure can be halved. For work, you will need boards with a section size of 9 × 4.5 cm or 9 × 5 cm.
Helpful advice! Using the groove method, the barrel structure can be made collapsible. In this case, for reliability, it is recommended to use metal tie hoops that will fix the details of the building.
The reviews on the forums left about the barrel-bath for giving also confirm the practicality of this design:
“For a small area, a barrel-shaped bath is a godsend. I never thought that my six hundred square meters would allow me to acquire my own steam room. I did not dare to build a bath on my own, so I ordered it from specialists. The result exceeded all expectations. The bath has everything for comfort, even a small porch with a canopy. "
Sergey Kon, Moscow
Planning and construction of a turnkey bath, projects and prices for materials
To build a bath yourself, first you should outline an action plan:
- choose a project you like;
- study the construction scheme in stages;
- select building material, calculate its volume and purchase everything you need;
- carry out construction;
- bring the communication system;
- complete finishing, equip the bath from the inside and outside.
Turnkey construction companies do the same. Regardless of whether the bathhouse will be made to order or built independently, every nuance must be thought out in advance.
Standards for the construction of a summer cottage on the site
Most often, summer cottages are not large in size, therefore, in the process bath design we have to reckon with the area of the territory, which imposes certain restrictions on the design and general parameters of the building.It is recommended to place the structure on a hill, which will allow you to properly organize the drainage of water. It is desirable that a river or other body of water is located nearby.
Projects, photos, features of frame baths. Frame-panel board baths. Turnkey saunas: prices, where to buy. Step-by-step construction instructions, video.
Installing the sauna so that the sun's rays enter the sauna through the window will help relieve stress. In this case, the bath should be located so that the entrance to it would be clearly visible from the window of the house. This arrangement allows you to observe the building itself and the children.
Helpful advice! If you design the bathhouse as an extension to the house, you can save on materials and simplify your work. In this case, one of the walls will be ready, and the structure itself will be more reliable.
In the design process, it is imperative to check with the SNiP 30-02-97 regulations. The sixth section contains all the regulatory requirements for the construction of a bath, including optimal placement. It is not recommended to place the structure closer than 10 m from wooden objects on the site.
You also need to follow the requirements of the norms for building a bath from the fence of neighbors and other objects located on the territory. The minimum permissible distance from the garden house is 3 m. Buildings for household purposes should not be located at a distance of less than 1 m from the proposed construction site. If you neglect the prescriptions of regulatory documents, the authorities or neighbors may require the transfer of the structure to another place, which will entail additional costs of time and money.
Popular types of projects for a small bath for a summer residence
The development of a project for the construction of a bath at a summer cottage is carried out taking into account the technical and operational characteristics of the material that will be used in the work.
The projects of the following types are in the highest demand among developers:
- frame structures;
- prefabricated baths made of wood;
- buildings made of block material, stone or brick;
- buildings made on the basis of wood concrete.
When betting on a particular material, you should make sure that it meets the requirements for all the criteria of safety standards. For example, a bath should warm up quickly and withstand daily use without problems. If it takes half a day to warm up the room, it is much more practical to use Summer shower.
It is desirable that the construction provides for the most simple, yet practical design with minimal costs. The exceptions are those cases when the country house is presented in the form of a two-story cottage, in which people live for a long time. Then the sauna must have a corresponding design.
The choice of practical material for building a bath
The most common buildings in suburban areas are baths made of wood. This option is not the cheapest, but within reach for most. For the construction of such a project, you will need to organize a good and reliable foundation. But you can save on insulation, since wood baths retain heat perfectly.
The owners of suburban areas are in high demand for structures made by frame construction. Such projects have the most budgetary price and at the same time perfectly fulfill their function.In addition, you do not need to build a heavy and expensive foundation, since such structures are lightweight.
Helpful advice! If you do not have time or desire to engage in construction with your own hands, you can buy a mini-bath for a summer residence in a finished form. Manufacturers offer various modifications, starting from mobile structures that are fixed as a trailer on a car, ending with products in the form of a large barrel.
Brick and masonry are less commonly used in the construction of country baths. This is due to the need to manufacture a very heavy foundation. In addition, the stone walls freeze deeply, in such cases it takes a lot of time to warm up the bath. Alternatively, the use of foam blocks or gas blocks is allowed. These materials do not need a massive base, and the walls are not prone to freezing. When using foam blocks or gas blocks, care should be taken to protect the material from moisture, because it is highly hygroscopic.
On the basis of wood concrete, warm and durable structures are obtained. The cost of this material is relatively low. At the same time, the technology allows you to erect monolithic walls or use blocks for construction.
Materials for the construction of a frame bath in the country
In order to build a frame-type bath, you will need to build a structure in the form of a lattice. For the construction of walls, it is better to use a bar. The size of the material, its quantity and section depends on the selected project.
As an external finishing material for the walls of a frame bath, it is recommended to use:
- edged board;
- block house;
- OSB boards;
The best option for interior wall decoration is lining. It is natural, environmentally friendly and has excellent decorative characteristics.
To insulate a building, you should select a material that has good thermal insulation properties. It will be used to fill the wireframe part. With regard to insulation, you must adhere to all the requirements for its installation and operation. If the construction is carried out strictly according to the finished project, it should be borne in mind that the documentation most often contains information about one material, but not all possible ones.
If the insulation specified in the documentation is too high for the budget, you can find a cheaper analogue using the recommendations of summer residents from the forums.
Materials for the construction of a prefabricated bathhouse for a summer residence and classification by heat source
The following types of materials are suitable for creating a homemade prefabricated bath:
- natural wood (debarked);
- profiled timber;
- log (rounded);
- edged timber;
- glued laminated timber.
The heat source that heats the room is also switched on in bath project even at the planning stage. Sauna stoves can be very different. The optimal design should quickly warm up the steam room and maintain a high temperature in it for a long time. The capabilities of some furnaces allow you to raise this parameter to 1000 ° C.
Note! All of these materials have low fire resistance. To reduce the likelihood of a fire, experts recommend using a special protective impregnation for treating timber or logs.
For traditional Russian baths, wood-burning stoves are usually used, which can be made from the following materials:
- cast iron.
Such structures are equipped with a chimney and a heater placed inside the steam room. The presence of such a stove affects the design and the interior layout of the premises. The firebox is most often taken out to the dressing room. This saves usable space in the steam room. In addition, it becomes possible to prepare firewood for kindling in advance.
For a mobile bath for a summer residence, it is better to take electrical equipment. This oven is compact and easy to operate. Placement in the steam room is allowed. The design does not require the installation of a chimney system. There are even stoves on sale with convenient controls that allow you to set the temperature regime.
Gas ovens are considered the most economical of all options. However, their installation is fraught with some difficulties, because any gas equipment carries a potential hazard, so a certified specialist must be engaged in its connection.
Materials for the construction of a bathhouse in the country with a stationary structure
Baths with a stationary type of accommodation are more durable and reliable. They need a thorough approach, since such a structure is built for a long time. The use of bricks is allowed for the manufacture of walls. It can be silicate or ceramic. Baths made of stone are considered the most durable. Shell, limestone, quarry is used as a building material.
For the construction of a small bath, you can use modern materials made in the form of blocks. They are practical and significantly reduce construction time.
Such materials include:
- foam blocks;
- cinder blocks;
- gas blocks.
There is another type of block material that is suitable for making walls in a bath - wood concrete. It is not as durable as stone, but it is inexpensive. If it is planned to build a mini bath for a summer residence, you can buy wood concrete blocks ready-made, or you can make them yourself from sawdust. The whole process does not take long.
Helpful advice! Arbolite blocks can be used to create monolithic walls for a bath. To do this, you need to build a formwork structure and fill it with cement-bonded mortar.
Insulation and vapor barrier of a small bath for a summer residence: recommended materials
For heated baths, it is recommended to carry out external insulation. Summer residents rarely resort to the construction of such structures due to the high cost of such projects. Most often, the owners of suburban areas are limited to unheated baths with internal insulation.
Structures made using frame technology do not need additional insulation, since the laying of heat-insulating materials is provided for by the project even at the construction stage. The necessary components are inserted into the wooden crate. For other types of baths, a more complex insulation technology is used.
Mineral wool is required to perform insulation work. The thickness of the material is selected taking into account the climatic conditions of the region in which the summer cottage is located, and the material used for the construction of the bath. The minimum thickness of the insulating layer is 5 cm. Mineral wool is sold in different forms: rolls and mats.
Vapor barrier is no less important than insulation, but this concept should not be confused with waterproofing. Even an inexpensive vapor barrier will do its job without any problems, while waterproofing that is not used for its intended purpose can do more harm than good. In the process of selecting material, you need to carefully study the parameters and data of the manufacturer, so as not to buy a fake.
Materials for the ceiling and interior cladding for a small bathhouse for a summer residence
The rest room and the dressing room are considered the warmest, therefore it is recommended to use materials with a low thermal conductivity for their construction. Alder, linden or aspen are ideal for these purposes. It is better to use wooden lining as a cladding material for the ceiling of the steam room. This type of material is environmentally friendly and able to cope with high temperatures.
It is not recommended to use spruce or pine for construction, as well as any products made from these types of wood. Under the influence of high temperatures, such wood gives off natural resin, which is contained in its composition.
Important!Do not use chipboard and fiberboard sheets as decoration for ceilings. Under the influence of high humidity and temperature, these materials give off vapors that are very harmful to human health..
It is not necessary to use expensive materials for finishing. Budget solutions are also suitable for giving. Lining and similar materials will be an excellent interior decoration. If the bath is made of cylindrical logs, the front of the building can be left untouched. As an external cladding for other structures, any types of facade materials used for cladding buildings can be used.
How much does it cost to build a turnkey bathhouse in a dacha: prices of finished projects and materials
To determine how much it will cost to build a bath, you need to compare the cost of finished projects and prices for materials that can be used if the work is done independently. Thus, it will become clear whether it is advisable to make a bath with your own hands, or whether it is better to entrust it to professionals.
Average prices for finished projects:
|Project name||Size, m||Features:||price, rub.|
|PBB-01||2,3×4||timber, transport structure||109000|
|PBB-111||4×6||timber, terrace, frame||270000|
The cost of building a bath with your own hands depends on the chosen project. To do this, you need to determine the required amount of materials and calculate the total cost.
Average prices for building materials:
|Name||Size, cm||price, rub.|
|Solid brick М150||25×12×6,5||17 (pcs.)|
|Gas silicate block||6×25×5||40 (pcs.)|
|Edged board 2/3 grade||4×15×600||5500 (m³)|
|Spruce / pine timber||10×10×600||6700 (m³)|
|Spruce / pine timber||15×15×600||6900 (m³)|
|Pine edged board||4×10×600||7500 (m³)|
Taking into account the prices, it can be concluded that the most economical option would be the construction of a bathhouse using Canadian technology or using blocks.
Helpful advice! If you partially use low grade or used materials, you can significantly save. For example, an edged board can be replaced with an unedged board. As a result, the design of the bath will be more colorful.
How to make a bath in the country yourself: tips for project development
It is imperative that the bathhouse project is carefully thought out even before construction begins. The diagram shows all dimensions, room layout, equipment placement and furnishings.This approach will allow you to correctly estimate and calculate costs, as well as prevent mistakes during construction. Also, the scheme helps to optimize construction work.
The layout of the bath in the country: the minimum dimensions and parameters of the premises
The steam room is the main room in any bath, so you need to pay special attention to it. Two- or three-story shelves and a stove-heater are the obligatory attributes of this room. Even if it is planned to build a very modest bathhouse, there are certain restrictions on the minimum size. The steam room must not be less than 4 m². The optimal area for 2-3 people is 10 m².
As a rule, such rooms are designed for at least two people, so there should be enough space. The area of the steam room is calculated so that people can fully lie on the shelves, sit and use brooms. Operation of the premises must be safe, and the tightness can lead to skin burns from touching the stove or exposure to hot steam.
If according to the project it is assumed that the entire stove will be in the steam room, and the fuel will be laid in the same room, then the usable area should be increased by another 2 m². This will allow you to easily throw firewood into the firebox and store it. Before the furnace structure, it is imperative to put a pre-furnace sheet. Its minimum size is 1 m². This nuance should also be noted on the project diagram.
During the operation of the bath, not only the steam room is used, but also water procedures are performed. For this reason, a small shower room should be included in the layout of the building. It is located in a separate room or in a room adjacent to the steam room. If you combine the washing room with the steam room, you can save usable space, as well as reduce the cost of installing interior partitions and installing a sewer system.
Drawing up a design scheme for a small bath for a summer residence
In addition to the above rooms, on the diagram you need to place the dressing room or dressing room.
You will need for a small bathhouse to buy the following furnishings:
- compact table;
- clothes hangers;
- cabinet for storing bath accessories.
Helpful advice!It is advisable to plan the bath so that the stove is located in the steam room, and the loading door for firewood goes into the dressing room. In this case, you can save on heating.
The bath can do without a plumbing system. But this is associated with certain difficulties, because water will have to be brought in manually using buckets, and a tank will have to be equipped on the stove. The presence of a separate bathroom is also optional. You can limit yourself to the comforts of a country house. But in this case, the bath can only be operated in summer.
If the water supply can be abandoned, then the bathhouse will not be able to fully function without sewerage and electricity. The light problem is solved by a line of force that extends to the construction site.
You can do the sewerage arrangement yourself or entrust it to professionals by ordering the construction of one of the following facilities:
- Septic tank.
- Drainage pit.
On the project diagram, you need to specify the following data:
- the size of the building;
- the dimensions of each individual room;
- the height of the building and all rooms in it;
- place of installation of the heat source (furnace);
- opening type doors (in which direction);
- placement of window structures;
- location of switches, sockets, lamps and shields.
Elements of the electrical system must have a high level of moisture protection (more than IP54). It is recommended to place the window in the steam room at a height of 185-195 cm. It must not be located above the shelf. The optimal height of the premises is 2 m.
Choosing a foundation for the construction of a mini bath for a summer residence
The base for the bath is selected taking into account the size of the building and the type of soil at the construction site. Most often, experts prefer strip and columnar foundations.
The column foundation is simple to perform. Its structure consists of support pillars, which are mounted separately. The material for the manufacture of supports can be brick, reinforced concrete, rubble stone or concrete. The recommended cross-sectional size of the column is 60-60 cm. They are installed under the corners of the building and walls in increments of 2 m. It is recommended to equip a cushion of sand and gravel under the supports.
The columnar foundation should rise 20-30 cm above the soil level. The top is leveled with a solution and covered with several layers of roofing material. It is recommended to apply the material 2-3 times.
The construction of a strip foundation is more expensive than a columnar foundation. This is due to the fact that the base structure runs along the entire perimeter of the building. For its arrangement, a trench is dug, the depth of which is 40-60 cm. At the bottom, a sand cushion is set up, which should be tamped. It will protect the base from destruction when seasonal soil displacement occurs. The walls of the foundation are formed by pouring concrete. The use of reinforced concrete or concrete blocks, rubble or red brick is allowed.
Note! Wood baths do not have a lot of weight, so a shallow foundation will be enough for reliability.
How to build a bathhouse in the country with your own hands: technology
Before starting construction, you should prepare the site. To do this, you need to clear the area of excess: debris, vegetation, stumps and stones. Only after that you can start marking. If the suburban area is on a slope, in addition to this, the construction site will have to be leveled.
After that, in accordance with the project, markings are applied to the area. It is not difficult to transfer the contour of the bath, it is enough only to put notes in the form of reinforcement or long pegs in the places where the corners are located. The length of two walls is measured from the first mark, after which other elements are installed. When the entire perimeter of the building has been moved, check the markings. Make sure the corners are straight. To check this, it is enough to measure the marking along the axes between the pegs. The length parameters must match.
The strip foundation does not need strict adherence to the marking parameters. If the difference in the length of the axes is small, the result can be left. Columnar and pile foundations require accuracy in measurements, so the longest axis will have to be shortened until the parameters match. Thus, the primary markup is complete.
Do-it-yourself markup for a small bath in the country, taking into account the features of the foundation
When the perimeter of the building is transferred to the terrain, further marking is carried out taking into account the characteristics of the selected foundation.
The base in the form of slabs is extremely rare, since its cost is very high. This type of foundation is used only in cases where it is not possible to choose something else. The marking is carried out in accordance with the dimensions of the bath according to the project. You can make the foundation wider and longer than the bath, if provided by the project, but not less.
Shallow strip foundation is the most inexpensive and durable foundation option. The markings are made so that the tape filled with concrete runs strictly along the perimeter of the building, as well as under the partitions of the walls. Columnar foundations are mainly used for the construction of wooden structures.
The marking is carried out in accordance with the number of supports, which in turn depends on the size of the building.
A screw foundation has its advantages. Its construction does not take much time, and the installation system is very simple. In addition, there is no need for excavation, so the site will remain clean. The marking is carried out in accordance with the number of piles. No deviations are allowed.
Helpful advice! If the site is on a steep slope, it is recommended to use a pile foundation. It allows you to increase the reliability of the building and reduce the likelihood of slipping.
Preparing a strip foundation for a mini-bath for a summer residence with your own hands
A shallow strip foundation will be acceptable in the following cases:
- The soils on the site are non-flowing and dry.
- Groundwater runs high.
- Winter is not accompanied by severe frosts.
- Light material was chosen for construction, therefore the building is not heavy.
After the outer markings are completed, you can proceed to the inner ones. The minimum width of the foundation is 50 cm.The protrusion of the base outside the bath on each side is 5-10 cm.If the dimensions of the structure are 3 × 4 m, then the maximum marking parameters along the outer edge will be 3.2 × 4.2 m. the place where the oven will be located should be taken into account, because it also needs a foundation.
To make it easier to work with the markings, it is recommended to install wooden structures in the corners that resemble small benches. They are exposed on the same plane. The height of these structures must correspond to the height of the formwork, which will be erected later. A measuring cord is attached to them.
Next, you need to remove the top layer of soil according to the marking and, removing it to the side, dig a trench 50-60 cm deep. In some cases, a depth of 35 cm is allowed if the soil does not freeze too deeply. In this case, it is very important to dig up to the clay layer. Do not leave the soil bottom of the trench. Subsequently, the clay will be used in further works.
The bottom of the trench must be leveled. To do this, it is better to use the building level. Then a sand cushion is formed, a layer of sand at least 15 cm thick is poured into the trench. It is moistened with water and well rammed. If there is no vibratory rammer at hand, this operation can be done manually by taking a massive block and nailing handles to it. The next layer is formed from crushed stone with an average size of the fraction and is rammed in the same way.
Making formwork for the construction of a bath in the country with your own hands
At this stage of construction, a formwork structure is made for pouring the strip foundation. The height of the sides is selected so that their upper part touches the cord stretched for marking. Any available means, for example, old boards or pieces of slate, can serve as materials for the manufacture of formwork. The structure will be temporary, so after use it will need to be disassembled. Prepared shields are installed along the trench.
Important! The fixing of the formwork must be rigid and reliable, otherwise the heavy concrete mass can move the elements during pouring and deform the entire structure.
Before pouring from the inside, the formwork should be covered with plastic wrap. This coating will protect the boards from dirt and prevent the flow of concrete through the gaps between the structural elements. To fix the film layer, you can use thin nails or staples installed with a stapler.
There should be a distance of about 5 cm between the edges of the trench and the resulting frame. The formwork is lowered to the bottom. This must be done as carefully as possible so that the protective film does not break. It is advisable to raise the frame above the pillow. For this, pieces of granite are placed under the formwork. It is not recommended to use brick for these purposes, since it crumbles under the influence of moisture.
If the project provides for the laying of communication systems through the foundation part of the building, then holes must be left for these elements. For this, sleeves are suitable. They can also be used to form products.
Pouring the foundation for the construction of a bath in the country
The process of pouring the foundation does not allow significant interruptions in work, therefore, the time allotted for this procedure must be planned so that it can be managed in one day. Otherwise, it will not work to make a monolithic tape. The most convenient method of delivering concrete solution is by a mixer. It can also be used to fill the foundation.
The use of a concrete mixer is less convenient. In this case, you will have to prepare the mixture yourself. This will require cement grade M400. A mortar of cement, sand and crushed stone (gravel) is mixed in the following ratio 1: 3: 5, respectively.
After pouring, the foundation is compacted with a vibrator. You can use the bayonet method to make the base sink. When this happens, a small amount of concrete should be added to level the area. If the base is formed under a wooden building while the mortar is not frozen, bolts for the foundation should be fixed in it. The formwork can be removed no earlier than one week after casting.
Note!One week is not enough for concrete to gain strength. Therefore, all work must be done carefully. In order not to risk it, it is recommended to start the construction of the bathhouse 28 days after the foundation is poured.
How to build a bathhouse in the country with your own hands: laying walls
If a bath is being built on the basis of brick, stone or block material, the level of the foundation should be leveled using a cement-sand mortar. After that, a double layer of roofing material is laid.
Laying must start from the corner zones. When the first blocks are installed on a cement-sand mortar, their placement is checked. Elements must be located in the same plane. Then you need to pull the string along the top edge. It will be used as a guide for the entire row.
For the second row, a different mixture can be used. It depends on the material. If the walls are built on the basis of shell rock or brick, the cement-sand mortar can be left. For lightweight blocks, it is better to take mixtures that the manufacturer recommends.
Lintels are mounted above window and door structures. Here the formwork is installed and an armored belt is formed. Foundation bolts are fixed in it to help fix the Mauerlat. When the concrete is fully solidified, you can proceed to creating the roof.
Construction of a frame for a small bath in the country
For the construction of a frame-type bathhouse, a wood base is constructed. It is sheathed with finishing material.This forms the wall of the building. For work, you need to take high-quality materials and strictly observe the technology of their installation.
A frame structure is formed on the foundation without a lower strapping. For this, a beam with a section of 10 × 10 cm is suitable.On the end parts of the material, cuts should be made about half the thickness. This will allow the elements to be fastened to each other using self-tapping screws. If bars measuring 5 × 10 cm are taken for construction, then the frame part is assembled by the docking method. To hold the elements together, metal corners should be used.
The sequence of further assembly of the frame:
- Installation of the end strapping board.
- Fastening the floor log end-to-end to the board.
- Cutting the log on the other side for mounting a second end board for strapping.
- Laying insulation between the logs.
- Nailing the strapping boards.
- Assembly of the frame and installation of parts in the designated places.
- Connection of all elements into one structure.
Helpful advice! To get a frame with low thermal conductivity, it is better to use boards made of aspen, well-dried larch or linden. In this case, the structure will be resistant to deformation loads.
To prevent the accumulation of liquid inside the frame, it is recommended to use a vapor barrier film. To insulate the structure, fiberglass and mineral wool are suitable, which will provide air access. This procedure should be carried out after the roof has been made, as the material may get wet in the rain.
How to properly build a roof and install floors for a bath in the country
At this stage of construction of a frame bath, it remains only to complete the installation of floorboards and build a rafter system.
Projects for other buildings require a more complex design, which is carried out in the following order:
- Installation of lag.
- Organization of the sub floor.
- Fixation of the vapor barrier layer.
- Insulation laying.
- Installation of waterproofing material.
- Flooring of floorboards.
These boards need regular replacement, which is done every few years. Taking into account the fact that it takes a long time to dry a summer cottage, it is recommended to make the floors not from boards, but from concrete, or tiling with tiles. On top of it, wood shields can be laid, which, after use, can be easily taken out into barnwhere they can dry out during the absence of the owners. In frame structures that are mounted on top of a pile or columnar foundation, only a wooden floor with insulation is permissible.
You should also think about waterproofing and thermal insulation, otherwise the steam will freely enter the attic, accelerating the destruction of wooden beams and the rafter system.
The choice of roof depends on the technical features of the building and the type of terrain where it stands. If the site is surrounded by tall trees, you can safely build a high gable type roof. For steppe zones, where buildings are exposed to severe wind loads, it is better to make roofs with a minimum slope.
For small buildings, a pitched roof is suitable, but provided that the snow loads in winter are negligible. This type of construction is often used in projects where a bathhouse is attached to a residential building.
Organization of ventilation according to general projects of a bath in the country
During the operation of the steam room, the air in it must be renewed twice, or even three times within an hour. Most often, the inlet is located at the bottom of the boiler, and the hood is located on the opposite side under the ceiling.If ventilation is not performed correctly, the air flow will move slowly. There are other options when this process is completely uncontrolled and the heat quickly leaves the premises. In this case, the legs will freeze, and the unbearable heat will stand under the ceiling.
Note!It is necessary to close the exhaust window while the steam room is warming up. Otherwise, it will take too long.
Make two holes to keep warm air close to the ceiling. Each of them will perform a specific function. The bottom hole is designed to maintain a comfortable indoor environment. Cooling air will come out through it. The top opening should be opened when there is a need for ventilation.
IN ventilation system needs not only a steam room, but also the rest of the bath room. To eliminate heat loss when this is not necessary, it is advisable to equip the holes with dampers that will open only during ventilation.
Plating according to the project of a bath for a summer residence
Regardless of whether the bathhouse is made of brick or wood, the surfaces are finished according to a single technology. First you need to make a crate and fix it on the wall. For this, wooden slats are suitable. After that, the structure is sheathed with clapboard. All rooms are finished in the same way, except for the steam room. Here it is required to lay a heat-reflecting material in the form of a foil under the crate.
Exterior decoration performs not only decorative but also protective function. As a cladding, you can use a block house, imitation of a bar, lining, siding and facade tiles. A paint finish is also suitable.
This concludes the construction of the bathhouse. It only remains to install the appropriate heating equipment and furniture. Some of the furnishings can be made by yourself. If there is no desire to make furniture with your own hands, the stores have an extensive selection of special furniture. As a budget alternative, you can use old interior items that, after a small restoration, can last a long time. But you should not use chipboard products, because they very quickly undergo destruction under the influence of moisture.