Since grapes are a warm and light-loving culture, special care of the plant will be required to obtain a high yield or increase the volume of fruiting. One of these care options is a trellis for grapes, which is a support for any part of the plant, without it the grape bush is helpless. From this publication you will learn about the types of supports for grapes, how to make and install them yourself.
- 1 Trellis for grapes: the purpose of the fixture
- 2 DIY vineyard arrangement: varieties of trellises
- 3 DIY master class for making a metal one-plane trellis for grapes
- 4 Buy trellis for climbing plants: choice of support
Tapestry for grapes: purpose of the device
In the wild, grapes grow erratically, leaning on trees and other vertical structures or spreading their branches on the ground. But such an arrangement does not at all contribute to a high yield and an increase in the taste of berries. In the third year of life, the grapes will need reliable support.
Trellis for climbing plants - the most productive and economical method of organizing the placement of vines, flowers, raspberries, and the design guarantees excellent conditions for fruiting. A strong and durable frame has all the necessary qualities to ensure the growth and development of a shapeless vine.
Thanks to the support, the vines are evenly spaced along the trellis and are perfectly illuminated by the sun. As a result, the leaves produce more organic matter, which ensures an increase in yield, while the ripening of fruits is accelerated, and their quality is increased. The bushes of the plant are better ventilated, as a result of which they are less susceptible to damage by fungal diseases.
The trellis is an artificial vertical support that ensures optimal growth and development of the plant. This structure must be strong and durable, since the vine creates a significant load during fruiting.
The best option is to create a trellis for grapes with your own hands. To do this, you first need to think over the design of the product, make drawings of the trellis for grapes, plan its location at the summer cottage. It is very important to set the trellis at the correct distance.Structures should not be placed too close, thereby trying to increase the number of planted plants. The main thing is to provide the vineyard in the country with enough light and excellent airflow.
Before you create a support for grapes with your own hands, you definitely need to get acquainted with the types of these structures in order to choose the most suitable option for your site.
Helpful advice! Cultivation of grapes in the country differs from the industrial method. In large agricultural farms, the trellises are placed in such a way that the plants have free access to equipment. In small vineyards, special mechanization is rarely used, so the choice of supports for grapes is much wider.
Support for grapes: materials for making tapestries
According to the material of manufacture, the frame for grapes can be divided into the following categories:
The safest and most environmentally friendly option is wood. The disadvantage of a wooden trellis is that it is a very short-lived raw material, and grapes have been growing for more than a dozen years. But if, nevertheless, it was decided to make trellises for grapes from this material, then it is best to give preference to the most durable and durable types of wood, for example, oak, ash, acacia or chestnut is recommended. Alder, linden and maple are trees that are absolutely unsuitable for making a support.
Regardless of the material chosen, the workpieces must be carefully processed before starting work. To do this, the pads are first cleaned of bark, and then coated with resin or diesel fuel. You can also soak the workpieces for two weeks in a solution of copper sulfate. Before installing ready-made supports under the grapes, the ground at the installation site must be poured abundantly with a 5% solution of Bordeaux liquid.
Metal supports will look more modern. The advantage of using such trellises is the durability of the structure. In addition, the preparatory phase for the installation and construction of metal supports will be greatly simplified.
Metal trellis for grapes can be made from iron or galvanized pipes. Before installing the iron structure, it must be painted to prevent rust. Trellises made of asbestos pipes or small plastic posts are quite popular.
What material is preferable to use for the manufacture of trellises - the choice depends entirely on the wishes of the gardener.
Before making a trellis with your own hands, it is important to choose the optimal size of the structure. Experts recommend using trellises for grapes, the height of which should not significantly exceed the height of a person. It is best for it to be 190 cm, and the optimal distance between the two posts should not exceed 250 centimeters.
For maximum illumination during the day and better ventilation of the plants, it is recommended to place structures from north to south. This is due to the direction of movement of the sun during the day. This planting scheme plus abundant foliage will allow you to get an excellent grape harvest.
After installing the supports, a strong metal wire is pulled between them or thin pipes are used. The use of such materials will avoid the annual pulling of the ropes, which will break anyway.
The optimum material for pulling is copper wire. It will surely hold the vine and also protect the plant from disease.However, copper wire attracts hunters for non-ferrous metals to the site. Therefore, it is better to use galvanized wire, and this material is more affordable.
Usually, wire 3-4 mm thick is used. The method of attaching this material to the support can be different. For this, regular nails, metal staples or wire rings are suitable, and can also be attached by pulling through the supports. In the case of using a metal support for attaching the wire, it is necessary to pre-drill the holes through which it will be pulled.
There are no clear requirements regarding the height of the trellis. In the case of industrial cultivation of grapes, pillars with this indicator from 90 to 250 cm are installed, in a household they can reach a height of up to 350 cm.On average, this value is about 2 m.
There are many workshops on the Internet with do-it-yourself drawings of grape trellises. Also on construction portals are examples of photos of trellis for grapes.
Helpful advice! To make the grape trellis more useful, it is better to stretch the wire between the supports in several rows. The optimal number is 3-4.
Arrangement vineyard do it yourself: varieties of trellises
The first step in any master class that teaches how to make a trellis for grapes begins with choosing the type of support that is optimal for your garden plot.
By design, there are the following categories of supports for grapes:
- single-plane with and without a roof;
- two-plane V- and Y-shaped;
One-plane do-it-yourself tapestry: drawings and photos
The simplest and most convenient option for the effective organization of planting grape varieties with medium-sized fruits is the use of a single-plane support. The design of such a trellis is very easy to manufacture. To create it, you will need about four supports and crossbars, as well as wire and cement mortar to strengthen the supports.
The appearance of a single-plane trellis is several blocks with crossbars, which are located on the same line at regular intervals. The wire is fixed on the supports.
This type of tapestry has a number of advantages:
- the ability to plant other plants between the rows of trellises;
- grapes are easy to care for;
- plants receive uniform illumination, which means that the fruits ripen faster;
- easy to create with your own hands.
It is very simple to make such a one-plane grape grate with your own hands. To do this, you first need to fix the supports in the ground. Then dig or drill holes in which to place the trellis posts. In order for the supports to stand securely for a long time and withstand the pressure of the vine, the holes should have a depth of about 80 cm, but not less. At the bottom of the pit, a sand cushion approximately 20 cm thick is created.
After that, the installed support must be cemented and left for a while until the foundation hardens. Experts do not recommend exceeding the distance between the supports by more than 3 meters.
Then crossbars are mounted on top of the structure. It is on them that the main load from the weight of the grape branches falls. The wire is tensioned in several rows between the posts. The optimal distance between them is 45-50 cm. The bottom row is best placed at a height of about 40 cm from the ground level, and the top row is 5 cm below the trellis crossbar.
The most effective is the use of a single-plane trellis with a visor.This design provides the most optimal use of the plant area, and also contributes to better lighting and ventilation of the grapes. It is very easy to make such a trellis for grapes with your own hands, photos of these structures are easy to find on the net.
The use of a single-plane trellis allows the formation of grape bushes with 2 - 6 arms. With an increase in the number of branches, the distance between the bushes increases.
In the case of densely planted vines in a row, amateur gardeners use cross-sleeving. The young vine, which will form the sleeve, is allowed to grow horizontally along the ground towards the neighboring bush. Do the same with the branch of the next bush. Such planting allows accumulating a large stock of old wood, which means that it makes it possible to increase the yield of the crop per unit area.
Helpful advice! It is best to use aluminum or copper wire with a diameter of 2 to 4 mm for the trellis. It is undesirable to use a metal product, since it is susceptible to rust, which means that the wire will have to be changed very often.
Two-plane trellis for grapes: dimensions and characteristics
Two-plane trellis are best used for large-fruited grapes. This design allows you to evenly distribute the above-ground part of the bush on both planes. This type of support excludes the possibility of planting other plants between the rows of grapes. But such a tapestry has many advantages, namely:
- easy grape care;
Design, materials used. Examples of landscape design solutions. Manufacturing tips.
- improved lighting and ventilation of bushes;
- reduction of moisture that evaporates from the soil due to the preservation of the shade at the ground;
- easy access to bunches during flowering for pollinating insects;
- natural plant formation;
- high yield due to the creation of 4-12 sleeves.
Two-plane trellis for grapes are of two types: V and Y-shaped, as well as straight supports. In the case of a V-shaped lattice, the structural supports are fixed at an angle to each other. Y-shaped trellises are formed at the top of the post at an angle of 45 degrees. In straight trellis, the supports are parallel to each other.
Next, let's figure out how to make a two-plane trellis in stages.
First of all, you need to create a drawing with the specified dimensions. This will make it easier to place the trellis around the area. Due to the fact that two-plane trellis have a more complex design, they will take a little more time and materials.
After that, it is necessary to mark the location of the trellis for grapes on the ground. To do this, it is recommended to mark a rectangle on the site. It is best that its dimensions are 3x0.75 m. At the corners of the formed figure, holes are dug, the diameter of which should correspond to the size of the pillar.
The optimum depth for this pit should be at least half a meter. This will ensure the most reliable fixation of the supports. Further, with the help of cement mortar, the bases of the trellis are fixed. The supports are spread to the desired width along the upper edge, without waiting for the cement to harden. The position of the foundations can be fixed with rubble.
They begin to pull the wire only when the posts are securely fixed. It is best to stretch from the ground to the top of the supports. The distance between the rows and from the ground should be at least 0.5 m. You can fix the wire on the supports in any convenient way.The upper last row of wire must be fastened at a distance of 5 cm from the trellis crossbar.
Helpful advice! To increase the yield of grapes, the trellis can be made up to three or more meters high. This support will allow you to place a large mass of old wood, which will contribute to the accumulation of nutrients, and as a result, it will be possible to get a large harvest.
Decorative do-it-yourself trellis for grapes: drawings and photos
Many country house owners decorate the plot and garden with maiden grapes, which are used as decoration. This plant is very unpretentious, does not bear fruit, which means that special preparation for planting this culture will not be required. Any gardener who wants to plant such an ornamental plant in his garden can build a trellis for him with his own hands.
To decorate the garden area with arches and hedges made of decorative grapes, you only need to make a wooden frame and place several partitions on it. It is not difficult to install such a trellis: you can dig it into the ground or simply lean it against the wall of any structure. But to create a green fence, you will have to spend energy and material. In this case, the supports for a living fence should be similar to single-plane trellis, but at the same time have a lightweight structure.
Master class for making metal single-plane do it yourself trellis for grapes
The optimal place for growing grapes in the country is the sunniest place on the site. The grape trellis should be placed from north to south. After preparing the place for the vineyard, the necessary tools and materials, you can begin the installation of the structure itself.
Before installing and concreting, the trellis supports must be processed. Metal pipes should be coated with paint that is resistant to atmospheric precipitation. The part of the pillar that will be underground must be treated with an additional layer of paint or a special substance, and the transition between the aboveground and underground parts must be additionally coated with resin.
Then you need to prepare the holes for the posts. The depth of the holes should be at least 70 cm. At the bottom, a pillow 10-20 cm thick is created from sand and fine gravel. All this must be poured with water and carefully tamped.
You need to install the pillars evenly, so it is better to do it in pairs. The pillar must be lowered to the bottom of the hole, fixed with crushed stone and filled with cement mortar. Further installation steps can be performed only after the concrete is completely dry. This may take a week or more.
Next, the stiffeners are assembled. They are needed so that the pillars do not tilt under the weight of the grape branches. Metal corners and small diameter pipes must be attached to the top of the posts. This can be done using a welding machine or conventional bolts.
At the next stage, we pull the wire on the grape supports after 40 cm. You can attach the wire by pulling it through the holes in the posts or using special clamps.
To prevent the wire from sagging and the trellis from deforming under the weight of the grapes, it is necessary to use cable tensioners. You can buy them or make your own using thick aluminum wire.
All single-plane trellis are made according to the same principle. The differences in installation lie in the specifics of the material. Wooden poles must be pre-treated, concrete and asbestos poles require a hole of much larger diameter and depth.
Helpful advice! When installing a V-shaped trellis, the pillars of each plane are installed simultaneously and in the process of concreting they are spread apart so that the distance in the upper part between them is about 120 cm.
Buy trellis for climbing plants: choice of support
On the modern market, a wide selection of metal and wooden trellises is provided (photo), so everyone can satisfy their most unexpected fantasies. Buying a trellis for grapes means providing a reliable support for the climbing plant. Designs allow you to set the direction of growth of the bush and give the plant the desired shape. Decorative trellises are widely used in landscape design to decorate garden paths, flower beds or recreation areas.
A huge selection of models with openwork elements and ornaments is on sale. By installing a bench near a metal or wooden arch for the garden, the buyer can enjoy the rest in a pleasant and cool shade.
Garden trellises for climbing plants differ in shape, size and materials from which the structure is made. For example, it is better to choose a model of small dimensions made of plastic or bamboo as a trellis for flowers. Trellises or metal arches will be a reliable support for large bushes of grapes or raspberries.
To make the structure unobtrusive, you should buy a wooden trellis in the form of a lattice arch for the garden. Models with an unusual and original design will help focus on the vines on the site.
Any amateur gardener can install and create trellises for grapes with his own hands. The main thing is to follow the advice on processing the material for the trellises, as well as adhere to the required distances between the posts and the wire, and do not forget about reliable structural ribs. If you do everything right, then the finished trellis will serve in the vineyard (photo) for many years.