In some cases, it is not possible to connect a private house to a centralized water supply. The main reason for this situation is the significant removal of the site with a residential building from communications. In order to provide a house or cottage with drinking water, you will need to equip the well with your own hands. This solution is the most suitable, since it does not require the intervention of special equipment and large financial costs.
- 1 Well construction: which one to choose - mine or tubular
- 2 Diy well: constructive components
- 3 Classification of wells according to the intake part
- 4 Varieties of concrete rings for wells: sizes, price
- 5 Which pump for a well to choose - surface or deep?
- 6 Diy well in the country: choosing the best place
- 7 When is the best time to start arranging a well
- 8 How to dig a well with your own hands: step by step instructions
Well construction: which one to choose - mine or tubular
The choice of a water supply option for a suburban area depends on many factors. First of all, it is necessary to determine the water flow corresponding to the needs in a particular case. There are two common options for water supply at home, which cannot be connected to centralized communication.
The first one is a well, that is, a tubular well. However, this option is not suitable for self-installation, as it requires the use of special drilling equipment. In turn, it is quite possible to organize a mine well independently. Moreover, this does not require professional skills. To make a well of this type, you just need to follow the instructions.
To organize a well of a suitable design, you must first familiarize yourself with the factors affecting the choice of water supply. The key one is the depth of the aquifer. It can be different and depends on the individual characteristics of the area on the territory of which the summer cottage is located.
Also an important factor in determining the type of future water supply is the type of soil. For example, if the soil is very rocky, then drilling a well (tubular well) will cause certain difficulties. In such cases, it is recommended to dig up a mine variety.
Before starting installation work and purchasing the necessary material and equipment, it is recommended to determine in advance the daily rate of water. This figure should meet your needs, so it is determined depending on the region, the number of people living and other, secondary factors. After calculating the fluid consumption, the most suitable version of the water pump for the well is selected.
It is important to know that there are three aquifers, but the middle one is most often used. This fact is explained by the fact that the upper layer contains water, which is characterized by extremely low quality characteristics, therefore, it is unsuitable for drinking. This is due to the fact that it receives precipitation in the form of rain and melted snow.
In turn, the deepest layer, which is called artesian, contains clean, high-quality water. However, the cost of drilling a well capable of withdrawing fluid from it is too high. Maintenance of such a well is expensive. Thus, the most suitable option is the middle aquifer.
The standard well depth ranges from 10 to 20 m. In some situations (due to the terrain), the installation of a conventional well is simply impossible. This forces the owners of summer cottages to seek help from specialists using drilling equipment.
In other cases, it is recommended to install the mine variety, which is the most acceptable. If necessary, you can use the services of professionals. The price of digging wells with rings (total amount) may vary. It depends on the number of elements, their dimensions, as well as on the prices of the company that is engaged in this kind of work.
Note! A tubular borehole differs from a well in a small diameter corresponding to the section index of the drill. This characteristic affects the complexity of the independent organization of such an option on the site.
The use of a tubular well has one more disadvantage, which in some cases is quite significant. Well operation depends on the quality of the power supply. Therefore, if your home is constantly experiencing power outages, it is better to give preference to an ordinary well.
Diy well: constructive components
Drilling equipment can be used if the ground is difficult to pass (rocky or semi-rocky). Arranging a well in the country with your own hands is possible if the soil on the site belongs to one of the following types:
- sandy loam;
Experts recommend, before installing the well, to study in detail its design and individual components. Let's consider what is included in the mine water intake development. The lower part that takes the liquid is called the water intake. If the supply of the aquifer is able to meet the needs of consumers, then water flows only through the bottom of the well. However, if the reservoir resource is not large enough, the walls are perforated, which increases the fluid flow.
The next part of any well is the trunk. This segment starts from the surface and ends at the bottom (at the water level in the well). Such a pipe is assembled from various materials. The most common for a well are reinforced concrete rings, monolithic concrete, and bricks. In some cases, wood is used for these purposes.
The wellbore must necessarily meet certain characteristics. For example, it is very important that it is sealed.Otherwise, it is possible to contaminate drinking water with precipitation and chemical compounds contained in the soil.
Another part of the well is the head. This structure is located above the ground and resembles a small house. The function of this element is to protect the well from low temperatures in winter, and also protects it from atmospheric precipitation.
The optimal height for this structure is approximately 0.8-0.9 m, and the minimum is 60 cm. It simply does not make sense to build a house below the latter value, since it will cause inconvenience during operation. The head consists of a cover that protects the water in the well, and a lifting mechanism (for the bucket). The latter can be either manual or automatic, depending on the preferences of the site owners.
Helpful information! The price of digging a well by hand per meter ranges from 1000 to 2000 rubles.
The junction of the head with the barrel requires the organization of a protective structure made of clay. It is called a clay castle. It is located around the perimeter and acts as a barrier for waste and melt water that may be on the soil surface. The depth of such a structure should be lower than the level of freezing of the soil, and the width should be approximately 0.5 m.
Classification of wells according to the intake part
Another parameter worth paying attention to is the variant of the location of the intake segment in the reservoir. Depending on the degree of immersion in a layer containing water, this element can be:
- perfect with a sump.
In the first case, the water intake element is partially immersed in the reservoir with water. An imperfect type of water intake draws liquid through the bottom. It is easiest to dig a turnkey well of this type. Side perforation is used if necessary. In turn, the perfect version of the water intake part passes through the entire liquid layer and is located on a solid bottom. The liquid enters through the side perforation, after which it is transported to the surface using a pump.
There are surface and deep pumps. They are classified according to their location. The price of deep well pumps is higher, as they are more powerful.
Separately, it should be said about the water intake element, which includes a sump in its design. In its structure, it strongly resembles the previous element. The main difference is that it is equipped with a sump that acts as a reservoir. Thus, it becomes possible to store liquid, which is very convenient in some cases.
Varieties of concrete rings for wells: sizes, price
When arranging a wellbore, concrete rings are most often used. The expediency of their use is due to the high technical characteristics of the material. Concrete has good strength, which is achieved through reinforcement with steel rods. The minimum diameter of these items is 1 cm.
Durability, as well as resistance to low temperatures and moisture resistance are the undeniable advantages of concrete rings for wells. The price of these products is consistent with their characteristics.
Today there are several types of concrete rings. They differ in design, size, etc. Before starting installation of the well, experts recommend that you familiarize yourself with the classification of products in more detail. Let's consider the most popular ones.
Wall. Used to mount the neck of the well, which is the top of the wellbore. It is important to note that they are suitable for absolutely all types of wells. The most acceptable are wall reinforced concrete rings for wells. You can buy such products at the factory.
Helpful information! For arranging a well in a suburban area, it is recommended to use wall-type products. The most common option in this case are rings marked KS-10 (diameter 1 m) and KS-15 (diameter 1.5 m).
Additional. These products are usually used in situations where ordinary rings are not suitable. They have a non-standard size, which determines the peculiarities of their application.
Reinforced concrete. This type is the most common and is used for sewer and drainage wells. You can buy such structural elements at the factory that produces them.
Today, on the construction market, you can find other types of reinforced concrete rings (for example, equipped with a bottom). These concrete products, regardless of their type, are equipped with special grooves at the production stage. Their function is to prevent unwanted displacement of the rings after mounting.
Rings for a well: dimensions, price of concrete products
The size of these products is a key consideration when choosing them. Therefore, it is worth taking very seriously the calculation of the required diameter. The internal cross-sectional indicator and height are the two main numbers that are indicated by the manufacturer in the marking. And also an important indicator is the width of the walls. Before you buy concrete rings for a well, it is recommended to calculate their required dimensions in advance.
Step-by-step technology for arranging and connecting communications at a summer cottage.
As mentioned above, rings with a diameter of 1 m are best suited for organizing a well in a summer cottage. One and a half meter products are used less often, but they are also quite in demand in the modern market. The choice of diameter depends on the depth at which the subterranean formation containing water is located.
The height of these products can be different. The most suitable option for a suburban area is 90 cm. Reinforced concrete well rings with such a height are very convenient for installation, since the number of seams in this case is minimized.
It is important to remember that when buying concrete rings, you need to make sure what grade of concrete they are made of. To do this, you need to check the technical documentation corresponding to these products. It is not recommended to purchase rings if the concrete grade is lower than M200. The best option is elements that were additionally treated with steam during production.
Before you buy rings for wells, you should calculate the length of the barrel, and also select the desired size of its structural components. The cost of these products can be different and depends on their variety and design features.
Helpful information! When choosing concrete rings, it is recommended to compare their cost from different manufacturers. Prices for these items may vary depending on the supplier.
The price of reinforced concrete rings for a well with a diameter of 1 m, which are most suitable for a well column, averages 1,800 rubles. As for the thickness of the walls of such elements, it is equal to 8 cm. The weight of the ring can reach 640 kg. The minimum diameter of this type of concrete element is 0.7 m, which certainly affects the cost. Prices for products with such a section depend on their height and vary from 400 to 1600 rubles.
If necessary, you can buy reinforced concrete rings for a well, which have a diameter of 2 m. They are the most expensive and, in addition, have the largest weight (about 2300 kg). The price for such structural elements with a height of 0.9 m is on average 5,000 rubles.
Which pump for a well to choose - surface or deep?
Today, all pumps for wells are divided into two large groups: surface and deep. The latter are also called submersible. Thus, the choice of pumping equipment is made depending on the depth of the well. Before purchasing this or that variety, it is recommended to study in more detail the features of these devices.
Superficial. Already from the name it becomes clear where exactly such pumps are mounted. They can be located in close proximity to a well or even in a residential building. Surface well pumps are capable of transporting liquid from a depth of 7-9 m.
The most common application for such equipment is temporary water extraction for the site. It is also worth noting that the summer period is the most suitable for a temporary pump. With the help of such a device, it is possible to pump out liquid not only from an underground formation, but also from an open reservoir.
Submersible. Such pumps are lowered directly into the well. A special tie-down cable is used to securely position these devices. Deep well pumps deliver liquid from a depth of 9 to 200 m.
When buying such equipment, you must remember that it is capable of functioning all year round. Therefore, a submersible pump is ideal for supplying liquid to an area where people constantly live. Several types of deep-seated devices can be found today. Some of them are not suitable for private use and are used for water supply of industrial structures.
Note! From a constructive point of view, the deep type of pumping equipment is more complex. This is due to the specifics of their use. Such devices are capable of generating a fairly high pressure.
Before you buy a submersible pump for a well, it is recommended to carefully study its technical characteristics. The equipment must be suitable for the intended operating conditions.
Which submersible pump for a well is better to choose?
Depending on the design features and technical characteristics, there are several main types of downhole pumping equipment. In order to choose the model most suitable for organizing a well, you need to familiarize yourself with the features of these devices. Let's consider them in more detail.
Vibrating. Pumps that belong to this group are fairly common equipment. The production of such devices began in Soviet times. Previously, they were used to irrigate garden beds. The peculiarity of such submersible equipment is that it can be installed even in those wells that have not been cleaned for a long time.
Water that contains large quantities of sand and other particles cannot harm the vibration well pump. It is quite suitable for water supply at home, but it has some disadvantages.
The main disadvantage of such equipment is the rapid pollution of the drinking source. The vibration emanating from it during operation is capable of raising the dregs. As a result, large particles settle to the bottom and gradually lead to complete pollution of the source. Vibrating models are the cheapest: they can be purchased for 1300-2000 rubles.
Centrifugal. Today, the most popular type of pumping equipment used in the organization of water wells. The advantage of such a device is its high performance. In addition, many owners of such pumps note that their service life is longer than that of other models.
When using a submersible centrifugal pump for a well, do not worry about the rapid clogging of the source. Such a device practically does not create vibration effects and, accordingly, noise. Centrifugal models are also famous for the smooth flow of liquid, but they have a weak head.
Their main disadvantage is considered to be the inability to use in a polluted well. You can buy such a model for 7-10 thousand rubles. The most popular representative of this group is a device from the Aquarius company. A pump for a well of this type has a different cost depending on the type. The price range in this case is 7-20 thousand rubles.
Vortex. Devices belonging to this group transport water through the operation of a wheel equipped with special blades. Vortex models of pumping equipment are distinguished by high performance. The pressure they create during operation is 3-9 times higher than that of a centrifugal device.
The main disadvantage of vortex models is their strong sensitivity to polluted water sources. According to this indicator, they are ahead of even centrifugal models. To organize the water supply of a suburban area, they are not used so often. However, they differ in reasonable price. A deep vortex pump for a well costs an average of 7-8 thousand rubles.
Screw. The least popular downhole pump. This is due to its short operating life. The parts of the screw device wear quickly due to the presence of many points of contact. Most often, these pumps are used to pump viscous liquids, not water.
You can buy a pump for a well in a specialized store. In addition, currently there is an opportunity to place an order via the Internet using the search box of your browser. Before starting the installation of the well, you need to prepare the necessary tools, calculate and purchase materials and equipment. And you will also need to choose a suitable place in which the well will be installed.
Diy well in the country: choosing the best place
If you have chosen a well, and not a tubular well for water supply to your private house or suburban area, then the first thing to do is to choose a suitable place for it. Consider the rules that should be followed when selecting a location for a well.
Note! It is recommended to perform a well water analysis prior to final installation. There is a possibility that the liquid will be of poor quality, or generally undrinkable. Laboratory analyzes are also carried out during the operation of the intake structure, since over time the water in the source becomes polluted.
The well must be located at a point far from potential sources of pollution. The minimum permissible distance from the water intake structure to the nearest landfill or cesspool is 25 m. However, experts recommend doubling it in order to maximally protect the water source in the well from clogging.
If necessary, you can always use the services of specialists. A professional team will not only carry out a qualified installation of the water intake structure, but also determine the most suitable place for it.The turnkey price of a well depends on the company whose services you want to use. To date, the cost of installing 1 ring is on average 4000 rubles. The cost may also include the organization of a bottom filter (about 2000 rubles) and the installation of an above-ground house (6-6.5 thousand rubles).
The recommended distance from the foundation of a residential or any other building to the well is 8 m. Failure to comply with this rule can lead to serious consequences. Water located underground can erode the soil layer under the foundation, which will lead to its weakening.
Experts advise to equip a well at the highest point (in the direction of the flow of water in the soil) in a suburban area. However, this rule is not decisive. This is due to the fact that no matter what place you have chosen for the construction of the well, in any case, you will reach an underground source. It is important to remember: in order to buy reinforced concrete rings for a well, it is necessary to accurately calculate their number and dimensions. The depth of the structure can be different.
When is the best time to start arranging a well
Before you read the instructions that will help answer the question of how to make a well yourself, you need to choose a suitable time for installation. Many experts recommend starting to equip the well in late autumn. This is due to the fact that at this time the amount of precipitation falling on the soil is minimized. Accordingly, the level of the ground source will be lower.
Of course, the water level is the lowest in winter, but not every team of specialists works during this period. The difficulty lies in the low temperature, which makes the soil hard and difficult to pass. The cost of digging a well in winter can be higher, but some crews are ready to do all the necessary work for the usual cost.
The spring period is the most unacceptable for organizing a well. This is due to melting snow and heavy rainfall. In turn, drought in summer can severely affect groundwater levels. Thus, late autumn is the best time to install a well in a suburban area.
How to dig a well with your own hands: step by step instructions
Arrangement of a well in a suburban area is a serious undertaking that requires precision and considerable effort. This type of work cannot be done alone, so the help of at least one more person is required. First of all, you need to dig a hole in which the concrete ring will be located. The dimensions of the pit, of course, must correspond to the diameter of the product.
Soil, which contains a large amount of stones, must be loosened with scrap. Removal of soil from the pit is carried out using a simple structure - a tripod with a bucket located on a rope. After the pit of the required depth is ready, a certain sequence of actions should be followed.
First, the first concrete ring for the well is laid. The dimensions of this element can be different and are selected depending on the individual characteristics of the soil, the height of the pillar and the personal wishes of the owners. Next, you need to use a shovel to gradually remove the soil under the ring, which will allow you to lower it to the desired depth.
Note! Experts recommend using a product with conical points as the first ring. Such an element will sink much faster to the desired depth.
It is necessary that the ring is sufficiently immersed in the ground and level with the ground. Then you need to install the next element over the first ring and resume work on the deepening.The procedure is carried out until the second product is level with the soil level. This is the gradual installation of the well shaft.
The price of rings for a well is the main share of the costs that you will have to pay when organizing a well yourself. Typically, approximately 3 rings can be installed in 8 hours of operation. Laying the individual elements that make up the barrel and deepening them are quite simple if you follow all the steps correctly.
Next, it is necessary to reach the water-bearing layer, which is indicated by the appearance of small streams on the walls, as well as a decrease in temperature. After that, you will need to go deeper a few more meters. The next step is to lay a layer of rubble on the bottom of the trunk. It will perform a very important function - to filter water. For the convenience of well construction, it is recommended to purchase a special ladder with hooks. It will also come in handy during repairs or preventive bottom cleaning. You can buy a ladder for a well for 2-5 thousand rubles.
How to independently strengthen the seams of a well: an algorithm of actions
After arranging the well column, you need to think about strengthening the joints between the concrete rings. You can use different materials for this, but experts advise using pieces of linen rope. This is due to its environmental qualities as well as good durability. If you are not confident in your abilities, then it is recommended to contact the professionals and order a turnkey well at your dacha.
Next, you need to cover up the cracks (with the ropes laid in them) with a special solution. For its preparation, such components are used as:
- glass (liquid).
This type of joint compound is the most appropriate option. After it hardens, good waterproofing of the joints is ensured. Moreover, the material is absolutely neutral and does not emit harmful chemical compounds upon contact with water.
It should be noted that, if necessary, you can use rings made of plastic for laying. They fit tightly together, forming a reliable trunk that does not need to strengthen the seams and putty. You can buy a plastic well or its individual elements on the Internet by placing an order on the website of any company.
Next, you need to insulate the upper rings. To do this, you need to dig a hole around their perimeter. The recommended depth for such a pit is 1 m. Then you need to protect the upper elements of the well shaft from water that is contained in the outer layers of the soil. This process is carried out using bitumen mastic.
After that, it is necessary to fill the recess around the upper rings with thermal insulation material. It remains only to fill the pit with clay, which will protect the well from atmospheric precipitation, which is absorbed into the soil.
Helpful information! The most affordable and cheapest option for thermal insulation is foam.
DIY well and bottom filter arrangement
After strengthening the walls of the well and waterproofing it at the surface, you should start arranging the head. Gravel should be laid around the perimeter of the concrete shaft. The layer of this material should be removed from the head by about 1 m (from all sides). After that, it is recommended to tamp the crushed stone as tightly as possible. The blind area can be made of cement, but crushed stone is an easier solution.
After that, the installation of a protective structure (house) will be required. If pumping equipment is used to transport water, then the mine can be completely closed using the manhole cover of the well.You can buy this product at a very reasonable cost. The price of covers ranges from 400 to 4000 rubles.
Next, you need to make sure that the water is purified naturally. To do this, you need to equip a bottom filter. Its design depends on the characteristics of the underground source. For example, if the rate of water inflow is high, then a large amount of liquid mud will appear at the bottom. In such a situation, perforated wooden boards should be laid, and only then - a filter made of rubble or gravel.
The recommended composition of the bottom filter includes 3 layers. The first of them is made from the finest fraction of the material and has a thickness of 10 cm. The middle and upper layers have the same thickness. The second layer is laid out from larger stones, and the last one from the largest. This type of drainage facilitates effective water purification.
If you wish, you can buy the bottom of the well ready-made. There are many options for this product, allowing you to select the element of the required design for a specific case. The cost of the bottoms varies from 1 to 5 thousand rubles. The finished bottoms contain a cavity for organizing the filter.
How to bring water into a house from a well yourself
Many people are interested in the question of how to carry out the wiring of water into a residential building. This activity is quite simple. First, you need to make two holes (in the head and at the entrance to the residential building). If necessary, a downhole adapter can be used at the exit of the pipe from the well.
Note! In the case of water supply to the house, it is necessary to abandon the open version of the well. Experts recommend buying a cover for the well in advance.
It is necessary to dig a trench corresponding to the course of the plastic pipe. In order for the water in the communication not to freeze, it is required to lay an electric cable along with the line, which will heat it.
Then communication is carried out into a residential building. It is important to remember that the place of its entrance to the foundation requires insulation. Next, a shield with automatic switches is installed. The connection itself is recommended to be done last, after the installation of the automation.
It is worth noting that, if necessary, you can order a turnkey water supply of a private house from a well. Many companies are not only engaged in the arrangement of wells, but also provide services for wiring communications to the house.
How to make a house for a well with your own hands: recommendations
The final stage of well construction is its protection from low temperature and atmospheric precipitation. For these purposes, it is customary to equip a special structure called a house for a well.
The need for this solution is due to such a factor as the proximity of the water level to the surface. As a result, there is a possibility of water freezing in the well in winter. The finished house is insulated using any available heat-insulating material: foam, mineral wool, etc.
Today there are two types of well houses: open and closed. The first of them involve the installation of a canopy on supports. In this case, the shaft hatch is closed with a plastic cover for the well. It is recommended to buy such a product in a specialized store, and you can also place an order via the Internet. Consider the features of both structures and the algorithm of actions for their installation above the well shaft.
Open well house. Its arrangement has some peculiarities. For example, the canopy should be slightly wider than the well shaft to protect the source from precipitation. It should be noted that open structures are much easier to assemble than closed ones.However, such a house will not be able to protect the source from freezing when the outside temperature drops below zero.
The assembly of this type of well house begins with finishing the head with wood or decorative stone. Then a canopy made of metal or boards is installed on the supports. The well hatch is closed with a special cover (wooden or plastic).
This is how the construction of a well house is done with your own hands. Photos of decorative wells in the country will allow you to visually evaluate all the advantages of this solution. Therefore, before starting work, experts recommend carefully studying the design and decor options.
Closed well house. The most common version of this type has a gable canopy, closed on all sides. Consider how to assemble a closed decorative well with your own hands. First of all, it is necessary to attach the edges of the future gable canopy. This operation is performed from the ridge to the corners of the site.
After mounting the frame, it is required to install it on the well head. Next, the central part is sealed with the selected material. In order to leave access to water, a small hatch will be required. Then the gate is mounted on the supports.
The next step is to seal up the end walls and both sides of the roof that form the slopes. The remaining door is equipped with a handle for easy use. Experts recommend protecting the edges of the roof. This is done with any suitable waterproofing material.
Helpful information! Any suitable materials can be used to decorate the house, for example, shingles.
If you wish, you can buy a ready-made well house. A variety of completed designs will allow everyone to choose the option they need to suit their taste.
Thus, construction is carried out, as well as the decoration of the well with your own hands. This event is not simple, therefore it is recommended to think over all the stages in advance, complete the well drawing and cost estimate. This will make it possible to assess the feasibility of independent arrangement of the well.