In order to increase the comfort of living in country houses, it is imperative to organize a sewerage system on the site. The main functions of such a system are waste disposal, collection and efficient disposal. Most often, for this, the installation of drives is performed, which are not without disadvantages. Modern construction technologies have an alternative solution - a do-it-yourself septic tank without pumping out for 10 years for a house and a summer cottage.
- 1 A septic tank with your own hands without pumping out 10 years for a house and a summer residence as an alternative to a cesspool
- 2 How to choose a convenient location for the structure on the site
- 3 The price of septic tanks for a private house and requirements for structures
- 4 Diy septic tank scheme from rings for a suburban area
- 5 Construction of a purification structure made of in-situ concrete
- 6 Construction of a septic tank from euro cubes with your own hands without pumping
- 7 Features of a septic tank from barrels with your own hands
- 8 Organization of septic tanks for summer cottages with a high level of groundwater
A septic tank with your own hands without pumping out 10 years for a house and a summer residence as an alternative to a cesspool
Owners of private and country houses, in which permanent or long-term residence is expected, are necessarily faced with the problem of organizing a sewer system. The most simplified option in this case is a cesspool. This type of system is a large container, completely sealed. It is designed to collect waste.
The disadvantage of this method of arranging the sewage system is that there is no independent waste disposal. The system is not complete, as it happens in city apartments, and needs the services of a sewer truck.
Pumping from the cesspool is a must! It is accompanied by significant costs for the services of a sewer service and is carried out quarterly. In winter, this process is complicated by weather conditions.
Helpful advice! In order to use paid services of service providers as rarely as possible, you can organize a cesspool with a large capacity. But a more profitable solution is to build a septic tank for a summer residence with your own hands without pumping out.
The presence of a septic tank design on the territory of a suburban area allows you to abandon the procedure for pumping out wastewater for 10-15 years. Therefore, this design is more profitable and popular.
Features of septic tanks for a private house with your own hands
Even the most optimal septic tank design cannot provide a waste disposal system that does not need to be pumped out at all. The locally located sewerage system must in any case be provided with service.
Correctly calculated volumes of the system and suitable soil (soil with good drainage ability) will allow you to organize the conditions under which filtration of liquid waste through the soil will occur. There are factors that create obstacles to this process not being limited by time frames.
Time restrictions are explained by the following points:
- The process of separation of effluents in the primary chamber is incomplete. A certain part of the suspended matter will be exposed to the secondary chamber, which is responsible for filtration. As a result, the siltation process starts. Ultimately, the efficiency of drainage will gradually decrease, which will reduce the level of performance of the septic tank.
- In the process of decay, solid fractions settle to the bottom and are taken with a crust. Therefore, they cannot disappear anywhere. Despite the fact that the main component of domestic wastewater is water (99%), due to the accumulation of sludge, the system will need to be cleaned.
Under these conditions, even a 10-year period of use will be a very profitable solution to the problem.
The principle of operation of the treatment plant
The separator (primary chamber) serves as a wastewater collection tank. Here, the settled liquid and dense fractions are separated. The particles that are heavier than water settle at the bottom. Lighter weight components are collected in the form of a crust on the surface.
Due to the biological basis of the origin of effluents, bacteria that feed on them multiply in them. Biological processing helps to reduce the volume of solids. The result of the decay process is the formation of a large amount of gaseous decomposition products - hydrogen sulfide and methane. They need a challenge.
Important! The removal of settled water from the separator, which must enter the filter well (secondary chamber), should be organized slightly lower than the level of the crust.
The septic tank is a pit with a soil bottom, the walls of which must be reinforced. There can be several ways to strengthen. The design works according to the following principle: the drains inside gradually seep into the ground. The level of absorption depends on the height of the water column. The higher this indicator, the more water will be absorbed by the soil in a certain unit of time.
Modifications of septic tanks for giving without pumping
Changes can be made to the system layout. This moment depends on the size of the summer cottage and the plan of the septic tank itself.
A part such as a filter well can be replaced:
- one pipe laid lower than the ground level passes;
- a whole system of pipes;
- filter ditch.
With the help of improvements, it is possible to increase the efficiency of cleaning the liquid component of wastewater. This aspect affects the increase in the operational life of the entire structure without maintenance.
Modifications can significantly improve the design:
- Installing a submersible drainage pump in the second chamber will make it possible to use the accumulated water for other needs, for example, irrigation. It is possible to drain the liquid into the drain located above the water level.
- Using a compressor to blow air through the separation chamber will increase the activity of aerobic bacteria.As a result of this, accelerated oxidation of organic matter occurs, which entails a decrease in the amount of sludge.
- In volatile septic tanks, you can use a special method of organizing a filter well. This area is covered with large boulders, due to which the sludge settles on top of the stones. The advantage of the method is that small cavities are formed between the boulders, allowing water to access the absorbing zones of the soil.
How to choose a convenient location for the structure on the site
The organization of a local treatment plant requires the implementation of several basic rules. Weakening of the soil under the foundation of a residential building or in the area where it is located can lead to collapse. It is not recommended to place a septic tank in this area.
Useful advice! The minimum allowable distance from the walls of the house to the sewage treatment plant is 5 m. During construction, this parameter should be taken into account. An exception is the separator, the bottom of which is hermetically sealed. It has no restrictions on this issue.
Summer cottages can be located on a slope. In such conditions, it is necessary to organize the septic tank below the level of the house placement. There are also restrictions on the construction of a sewage treatment plant in the vicinity of a well or well. Sources from which water is drawn can be contaminated with water contaminated with harmful bacteria.
It is better to abandon the construction of a septic tank with your own hands for a private house with a high level of groundwater. The design will not only be ineffective, but can also serve as a reason for a fine from the sanitary and epidemiological supervision.
A reasonable solution to this problem may be the construction by specialists of a two-section tank with a sufficient level of sealing, where there will be no filtering bottom and high-quality waterproofing will be performed.
Calculation of depth and volume for the construction of a structure
The digging of septic tanks in suburban areas is carried out based on the location of the groundwater level. The average depth of soil freezing is also taken into account.
In order for the cleaning process to maintain its stability under the influence of various weather conditions, it is necessary to achieve a positive temperature. High groundwater does not allow the structure to be deepened below the level of soil freezing. In such cases, insulation is done.
The following materials can be used for the insulation procedure:
- expanded clay;
- foam crumb;
- expanded polystyrene sheet;
- other materials of the modern generation with corresponding properties.
Filtering and storage chambers must have a certain volume. This indicator is calculated taking into account the volume of daily flows.
The following points are taken into account:
- features of household appliances that are present in the house;
- the operating mode of the site and the residential building on it;
- the number of residents permanently residing in the house;
- plumbing fixture system.
If the house is well equipped and maintained throughout the year, each tenant needs about 200 liters of water. A septic tank can handle such a volume of effluent in three days, and the volume is calculated using the formula:
Y x 200 l x 3 days = Vwhere
Y is the number of residents,
V is the volume of containers.
The price of septic tanks for a private house and the requirements for structures
The domestic market offers a wide range of treatment designs, among which there are many budget septic tanks for giving without pumping out.
The calculation of the cleaning structure is carried out taking into account the principles of multi-stage cleaning. The purification process can be carried out by means of 3 or 2 chambers.
Rating and price table of popular designs:
|Name||Cleaning efficiency,%||Volley discharge, l||Cost, rub.|
|Unilos Astra 3||98||150||66300|
Useful advice! According to plumbing SNiPs, a single-chamber structure should be erected for a stock volume up to 1 m³ / day. A two-chamber septic tank is built for a volume of 1-10 m³ / day, and three chambers are designed for large volumes. These guidelines are optional and can be considered guidelines.
In some cases, the conditions make it possible to create a single-chamber treatment plant with a capacity of 20-30 m³, which will become more efficient than a septic tank with three chambers.
Purpose of cameras:
- the first one is intended for accumulation and subsequent separation of runoff water into fractions;
- the second - performs the function of purification (here the process of decay and cleaning from organic matter occurs);
- the third is used for final filtration and liquid discharge into the ground.
With the exception of the drainage tank, all chambers must be sealed.
What is the best septic tank for a summer residence: we choose depending on the conditions of the site. The choice of a septic tank, what types of septic tanks exist in terms of performance, device and principle of operation. Which septic tanks are better.
Diy septic tank scheme from rings for a suburban area
Concrete rings - the most common material for the construction of a septic tank.
The advantages of this method:
- high level of tightness;
- fast installation system;
The diameter of the rings is selected taking into account the required volume of the treatment plant. The maximum number of rings per camera is 4.
Disadvantages of the method:
- high construction costs;
- installation difficulties (the issue of connecting cameras to each other);
- volumes are strictly limited;
- the need to use specialized equipment.
After the organization of the pits. the bottom is being prepared for the storage chambers. This section is being concreted. Other preparatory work is foreseen for the filter well. The specificity of this chamber requires the implementation of a crushed stone cushion at the bottom.
Installation of concrete rings is carried out one on top of the other. At this stage, it is necessary to take into account the connections of the pipe system to the wells. It is important here to carefully calculate the diameter and slope angle.
The chambers are sealed from the inside and outside. For this, it is recommended to use modern coating materials, cement mortar and waterproofing materials of the overlaid type. After that, the pits are filled up.
Construction of a purification structure made of in-situ concrete
Structures made of monolithic concrete are distinguished by their durability and increased strength.
Advantages of a monolith treatment plant:
- long service life;
- the availability of materials used for construction;
- high degree of waterproofing.
Important! Formwork serves as the basis for the construction of a monolithic structure. Its implementation is mandatory. The most suitable material for these purposes are shields made of OSB boards. This type of material is distinguished by good moisture resistance, and its cost is much lower than that of boards made of wooden boards.
Disadvantages of the monolith:
- high construction costs;
- the need for a reinforcing base;
- the construction of the formwork is a mandatory procedure;
- low bandwidth.
Before concreting the bottom of the chambers, at the initial stage of construction, a reinforcing mesh is laid. To prevent corrosion damage to the metal, a thick layer of concrete should be arranged in this area. The minimum thickness of the concrete layer above the mesh is 3 cm.
Formwork construction and reinforcement are in progress. After that, the walls of the chambers are concreted and the partitions between them are arranged. At the final stage, the floors are filled with concrete. Drying period is about 2 weeks. It is recommended to cover the solution with a film in order to ensure uniform drying.
Do-it-yourself construction of a septic tank from eurocubes without pumping
Eurocubes are containers made of plastic. For the installation of cameras from this material, a concrete base with a large thickness is made. A septic tank is fixed on this basis. This procedure is designed to ensure that the structure does not move under the influence of groundwater that moves under the surface of the ground. The rise in soil moisture can also move a poorly anchored structure.
The plastic container is insulated with polystyrene before installation. After which it is mounted in the pit. Then the tank is filled with water and concreted on the sides. The country septic tank is insulated even from above. A piping system must be brought to the surface to provide ventilation.
This type of purification structure requires the use of additional elements that will allow achieving a full level of wastewater treatment. For these purposes, it is recommended to use filter cassettes or filtration fields.
Useful advice! The use of biological additives will increase the intensity of the cleaning process. Pumping the septic tank in this case will become more rare. The additives not only increase the rate of decomposition of solids, but also reduce the amount of sludge.
Features of a septic tank from barrels with your own hands
The barrel cleaning system is carried out on the same principle as other septic tanks. It can have two or three chambers. The process of moving waste water into the tank is carried out by gravity. To achieve this effect, the installation must be carried out below the level of the sewer pipes.
This type of structure can be operated for several years. To increase the terms of effective use, it is recommended to check the first container for the formation of a blockage or siltation in it. The volume of the septic tank is increased by installing an additional barrel.
The cleaning system is made on the basis of plastic or metal drums. The main condition for quality is tightness. Metal tanks require special anti-corrosion treatment with protective agents. Therefore, many owners of suburban areas prefer structures made of plastic barrels.
The advantages of plastic elements:
- extensive assortment;
- simple installation system (no additional preparation of the material is required before installation);
- high degree of resistance to aggressive effluent;
- long service life;
- a high rate of tightness (good protection of the system from seepage of waste or penetration into groundwater);
- light weight (simplifies the installation process, eliminates the need for heavy special equipment).
Features of mounting a septic tank from plastic barrels
It is not difficult to equip a sewage system from plastic barrels. If black drains are not allowed, this type of purification design does not require special maintenance. For drains from the toilet, you will need to call the sewers.
Useful advice! If a country house is used for permanent residence, the barrel can be replaced with a larger container: a plastic cube, a tank, a tank. The mounting setup is similar in this case.
Installation step by step:
- Making holes on two containers (holes are located in the upper part, their size corresponds to the diameter of the flange).
- Making a hole in one container to accommodate a fan pipe.
- Works on waterproofing joints (it is recommended to use mastic).
- Fastening of drainage pipes into holes prepared on the side.
- Organizations at the bottom of the pit of a concrete base 25 cm thick (for the first chamber, which will be located higher than the second).
- Connection of containers to each other.
- Installation of a drainage pipe system (crushed stone is used as a drainage filter).
- Checking the angle of inclination of pipes with a building level (permissible angle of inclination is 2 cm per meter of length).
- Falling asleep of the structure.
- Checking for leaks and filling the system with water.
Organization of septic tanks for summer cottages with a high level of groundwater
The construction of a sewerage system can be complicated by the presence of a high level of groundwater at the site. These conditions impose restrictions on the treatment of wastewater passing through septic chambers, and the durability of the structure itself is significantly reduced.
The way out of this situation will be the construction of a sealed storage septic tank. Due to the sealing, soil moisture in excess will not be able to interact with drains and affect the process of their cleaning. Such structures have only one drawback. There is a need for regular use of the services of the sewer truck. And this already runs counter to the desire to create a cleaning structure that provides a long period of use without pumping out.
To achieve the desired result, you can use a typical scheme with a more complex structure. The design provides for the installation of a sealed container. The material for it can be concrete or plastic. This tank is to be divided into chambers designed for supplying runoff water and removing purified liquid.
Useful advice! If it is planned to install a septic tank without pumping out in an area with high groundwater, the process of additional purification of the liquid should be carried out in a different way. Instead of filtering fields, it is recommended to use filter cassettes specially designed for this purpose. They are mounted on the ground surface.
Choosing a septic tank for a site with high groundwater
In the presence of high groundwater in a suburban area, some rules should be followed when choosing a treatment plant. They will help you choose the right type of septic tank and make a quality installation.
- The volume of the sewage treatment plant is calculated based on the speed at which the effluent will be processed for a set period (day).
- Polymeric materials or concrete is the safest and most reliable basis for creating a septic tank.
- The highest efficiency can be offered by horizontally located septic tanks with a small depth.
- Suitable options for purification structures: accumulative or providing the ability to forcibly pump out the purified liquid.
- An increase in the number of chambers increases the degree of cleaning.
Groundwater close to the surface imposes restrictions on the use of some materials.
In such conditions, the construction of septic tanks should be abandoned:
- brickwork with gaps;
- from tires;
- from concrete rings.
Perforated drainage pipes should also be excluded from the list of used materials.
The choice of septic tanks for installation is large enough. Most of them can be assembled by hand. You can use improvised tools, for example, bricks or car tires (only for drains from a country shower), or purchase a ready-made structure from a specialized company.